Herbicides used in stevia farming

In Blogs
July 5, 2021
7 min read

A pot trial and two field trials evaluate the safety to stevia plants of 25 herbicides, many of which have been used for selective control in other Asteraceae crops. Pre-emergence herbicides that show potential for use in transplanted stevia include trifluralin, pendimethalin, oryzalin, bromacil, terbacil, linuron, methabenzthiazuron and alachlor. Post-emergence treatments that are tolerated reasonably well by stevia include many of the herbicides listed above plus clethodim, haloxyfop, propyzamide, thifensulfuron, flumetsulam and pyridate. Other post emergence herbicides that cause some crop damage but may merit further research include bentazone, ethofumesate, MCPB, picolinafen, chloridazon and metribuzin. Terbacil and bromacil are the most effective herbicides for weed control, although some crop damage did occur. Controlling weeds through frequent hand-weeding allowed a 30-fold increase in stevia production in one trial, although the best result obtained by herbicides was a 19 – fold increase using bromacil immediately before transplanting stevia. [1]

In this article we will discuss on herbicides used in stevia farming.

What is herbicide?

Herbicide is a chemical compound used to kill or impede the growth of undesired plants such as weeds and invasive species in residential and agricultural areas. Chemical herbicides provide a number of advantages over mechanical weed control, including simplicity of application, which can save money on labor. Although most herbicides are generally safe to animals and people, they can kill nontarget plants and the insects that rely on them, especially when used aerially.

Herbicides for Seeding

Stevia has a limited ability to compete with weeds during the early stages of growth, partly due to poor seed germination but also due to weak seedling growth rates; therefore, weeds not only diminish yields but also make harvesting more difficult (Ramesh et al. 2006). Although stevia is thought to be trifluralin tolerant (Andolfi et al. 2002; Midmore and Rank 2002), no data on herbicide tolerance trials have been reported. While some experimentation with herbicides other than trifluralin has been done, the results have been mixed.

In stevia, it has been proven that high plant densities and the use of black plastic mulch can help suppress weeds. Kienle (2004) examined the use of culture to manage weeds in stevia plants. Stevia crops are commonly established by transplanting 67- week-old plants cultivated from seeds or cuttings in glasshouses (Ramesh et al. 2006), which might help with early weed control if inter-row cultivation or mulches are utilized.

Pre – Emergence Herbicide

Terbacil Herbicide

Terbacil is a selective, residual, mainly root absorbed herbicide that controls a wide range of grasses and broad – leaved plants in –

  • Stevia
  • Apples
  • Pears
  • Lucerne
  • Other deep rooted perennial species

Bromacil Herbicide

Bromacil is a chemical compound that can be used as a non-selective herbicide with good effects. Bromacil is mostly used as a bare-ground herbicide or for industrial vegetation management.

It’s also renowned for delivering excellent selective weed control on a variety of crops, including –

  • Stevia
  • Citrus
  • Pineapple

Trifluralin Herbicide

Trifluralin is a pre-emergence herbicide that is extensively used. It’s one of the most common herbicides. Trifluralin is a soil-applied herbicide that kills a wide range of annual grass and broadleaf weeds. It stops weeds from germinating by inhibiting mitosis.

Trifluralin herbicides used in crops such as –

  • Stevia
  • Soyabeans
  • Cotton

Pendimethalin Herbicide

Pendimethalin is a synthetic chemical molecule that belongs to the Dinitroaniline class. Pendimethalin is a selective pre-emergence and post-emergence herbicide that is absorbed by target plants’ leaves and roots. After being translocated to the plant’s growing points, pendimethalin works by limiting cell division and growth at the growing points, reducing seed germination and seedling growth. Pendimethalin is used to manage annual grasses and broadleaved weeds.

It can use pendimethalin herbicide in –

  • Stevia

Also, it is approved for verity of crops like –

  • Apple
  • Barley (spring)
  • Barley (winter)
  • Blackberry
  • Blackcurrant
  • Broccoli / calabrese
  • Brussels sprout
  • Bulb onion
  • Cabbage
  • Carrot
  • Cauliflower
  • Cherry
  • Combining pea
  • Durum wheat
  • Forage maize
  • Gooseberry
  • Leek
  • Loganberry
  • Parsnip
  • Pear
  • Plum
  • Potato
  • Raspberry
  • Rubus hybrid
  • Rye (winter)
  • Strawberry
  • Sunflower
  • Triticale
  • Wheat (winter)

Oryzalin Herbicide

Oryzalin belongs to the dinitroaniline class of herbicides. It’s used to keep annual grasses, broadleaf weeds, woody shrubs, and vines under control.

It can be used in –

  • Stevia
  • Berries
  • Grapes
  • Orchard crops (including both nuts and fruits)

Linuron Herbicide

Linuron is a phenylurea herbicide that is used to suppress the growth of grass and weeds in order to promote crop growth.

Linuron can be used in –

  • Stevia
  • Barley
  • Oats
  • Wheat

Methabenzthiazuron Herbicide

Methabenzthiazuron is a herbicide that is frequently used to manage weeds and grasses. It is considered extremely harmful to the environment and aquatic life.

It is Used in –

  • Stevia
  • Legumes
  • Maize
  • Cereals

Alachlor Herbicide

Alachlor is a chloroacetanilide-based herbicide. It’s a white solid that has no odor. Alachlor is most commonly used in agriculture to manage annual grasses and broadleaf weeds.

Alachlor herbicide used in –

  • Stevia
  • Corn
  • Soybeans
  • Sorghum
  • Peanuts
  • Beans

Post – Emergence Herbicides

Clethodim Herbicide

Clethodim is a natural substance. It is an herbicide that belongs to the cyclohexanedione family and is used to suppress grasses, particularly Lolium rigidum. The chemical is colorless, despite the fact that impure samples seem yellow.

It can be Used in various crops –

  • Stevia
  • Conifers
  • Cotton
  • Cranberries
  • Garlic
  • Onions
  • Ornamentals
  • Peanuts
  • Soybeans
  • Strawberries
  • Sugar beet

Haloxyfop Herbicide

It is the most active enantiomer of the (racemic) herbicide haloxyfop, and it is used to control annual and perennial grasses in a range of crops (especially as the corresponding methyl and ethoxyethyl ester proherbicides (haloxyfop – P – methyl and haloxyfop – P – etotyl, respectively).

It can be used in –

  • Stevia
  • Onion
  • Potatoes
  • Soybean
  • Strawberries

Propyzamide Herbicide

It’s a systemic post-emergent herbicide that’s used to control grass and broadleaf weeds in a wide array of fruit and root crops, like stevia. It functions as both a herbicide and an agrochemical. It’s a dichlorobenzene that’s also a terminal acetylenic chemical and a benzamide.

This herbicide used in various crops like –

  • Stevia
  • Apple
  • Blackberry
  • Pear
  • Plum
  • Sugar beet

Thifensulfuron Herbicide

Thifensulfuron is an herbicide that is applied after the plant has emerged. It is generally used as the methyl version for the control of grass and broad – leaved weeds. It is a pesticide transformation product as well.

This herbicide used in –

  • Stevia
  • Wheat
  • Barley
  • Rye
  • Oats
  • Corn
  • Soybean

Flumetsulam Herbicide

Flumetsulam is a triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilide herbicide with a low level of activity. Flumetsulam works by blocking the enzyme acetolactate synthase. Flumetsulam has a broad spectrum of activity against broadleaf weeds, with selectivity for a number of main agronomic crops in both soil and foliar treatments.

This herbicide used in crops like –

  • Stevia
  • Soyabean
  • Corn
  • Other major crops

Pyridate Herbicide

Pyridate acts by inhibiting the photosystem II process in weeds, enabling harmful forms of oxygen to be released, causing fast cell wall disintegration. Pyridate has been recommended for use in weed management in crop production.

Pyridate herbicide used in crops like –

  • Stevia
  • Cabbage
  • Corn
  • Mint
  • Peanuts

Bentazone Herbicide

Bentazone is a synthetic molecule that belongs to the diazines chemical family. Bentazone is a selective contact post – emergence herbicide that is absorbed by the leaves of target plants and interrupts the photosynthetic process, causing glucose depletion and chloroplast membrane rupture. Post – emergent broadleaved weeds and sedges are the plants that are being targeted.

Bentazone herbicide can be used in –

  • Stevia

Also, it is approved for verity of crops like –

  • Broad beans
  • Field beans (spring and winter)
  • Runner beans
  • Navy beans
  • Combining peas
  • Vining peas

Ethofumesate Herbicide

Ethofumesate is a pesticide used in crops and plants to combat annual grasses and broad – leaved weeds.

It can be used in various plants like –

  • Stevia
  • Sugar beet
  • Fodder beet
  • Onion

MCPB Herbicide

MCPA is a post – emergence phenoxy herbicide that is used to suppress annual and perennial broadleaf weeds.

It can be used in various crops like –

  • Stevia
  • Rice
  • Peas
  • Potatoes
  • Flax

Picolinafen Herbicide

Picolinafen is a pyridinecarboxamide formed when the carboxy group of 6 – (m-trifluoromethylphenoxy) picolinic acid is formalized with the amino group of p – fluoroaniline.

It is a pesticide that inhibits carotenoid production and is used to combat broad – leaved weeds in –

  • Stevia
  • Wheat
  • Rice
  • Oats
  • Rye

Choridazon Herbicide

It is not considered volatile and has a moderate water solubility. It is relatively persistent in soil systems and, under some conditions, can also be persistent in water systems.

It aids in the management of weeds in crops such as –

  • Stevia
  • Sugar beet
  • Garlic
  • Onion
  • Shallots

Metribuzin Herbicide

Metribuzin is a selective herbicide of to the triazines chemical class. To manage pre – emergence and post – emergence broadleaf weeds and annual grasses, metribuzin can be used as a foliar spray or a soil treatment. Metribuzin has a long-lasting effect on the soil. Metribuzin is absorbed mostly by the roots, but to a lesser measure by the leaves.

In stevia, metribuzin used as a post – emergence herbicide.

This herbicide used in –

  • Stevia
  • Soybeans
  • Potatoes
  • Tomatoes
  • Sugar cane

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